Alan, one question that I’ve been asking lately is the degree to which “institutions making choices for individuals by the boundaries of an LMS” is an intrinsic feature of an LMS, as opposed to being an accident of the history of the software product category and the pedagogical models that existed at the time of its creation. There are a few defining features of the LMS that are driven by universities’ institutional obligation to certify students’ progress, but those features have to do with grading and not necessarily boundaries. Most of the aspects of the LMS that I hear people object to are not characteristics that I think of as essential to the definition of an LMS.